PARIS (Reuters) — “Vast solar tornadoes, nearly as wide as the Earth and gusting at up to 300,000 mph, have been discovered by the European Space Agency’s SOHO spacecraft, the agency said in a new report. SOHO, which observes the sun from 900,000 miles out in space, has detected a dozen tornadoes whipping across the solar surface, most of them near the sun’s north and south poles, during its two years in service, ESA said in Tuesday’s report. The newly discovered phenomenon may help scientists better understand the impact of solar wind, which buffets the earth’s environment, causing auroras and magnetic storms and endangering satellites and power supplies, ESA said in a statement. “We see the hot gas in the tornadoes spiraling away from the sun and gathering speed. These spectacular events in the sun’s atmosphere must have widespread effects,” British scientist David Pike of the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory was quoted as saying.
Is there really any question concerning the relationship between EMF’s, the Sun and terrestrial tornadoes?
THE MILLENNIUM GROUP
The following article is from the newly offered TMG ARCHIVES.
Written by Alexey Dmetriev et al
Modern approach to the study of tornadoes’ physical nature is based on the assumption [Br, DJ] that the high-speed rotating vortex is a local modification of a parent cloud, which is viewed as a small copy of a hurricane with it’s spiral structure. It’s also a common belief that the parent cloud is the sole source of energy and substance for a tornadoes’ origin and maintenance. This belief latently axiomatizes that the tornado cannot appear and exist beside the producing abilities of a parent cloud. Thus, the mathematical and physical description of tornado is toughly tied up to that of a parent thunderstorm, which is about three orders of magnitude larger than tornado itself.
Though this model and dependence is quite obvious, observational data archives contain examples of opposite connection [Wo] when a funnel appears first, then forming a cloud at the top. They urge us to deduce that the appearing funnel then generates a parent cloud. But there’s no logical veto for existence of two different ways of tornado evoking, having the same common cause, and both being lawful. The character of complex process “tornado-cloud” may be determined by an “integral quality of geology-geophysics environment”. (By this term we mean the state of Earth inner and outer envelopes and of energy transport flows between lithosphere, atmosphere and ionosphere). This quality, undergoing it’s modification in time and space, may create this or that scenario and succession of funnel and cloud.
Our new concept of tornado considers not only the quality of geology and geophysics environment, but it also expands the register of phenomena taken into account, preceding or accompanying generation and existence of the “funnel-cloud” system. Such kind of phenomena are different self-luminous formations in the lower atmosphere and it’s surface layer. Self-luminous formations are inherent to tornadoes and in [VoM, Vo60, Vo75] we have a large list of luminous phenomena eye witnessed by observers: ball of fire… lightning in a funnel… yellow shining surface of funnel… incessant lightning… fiery column… glowing clouds… brilliant shine…brilliant luminous cloud in a funnel… beaded lightning… exploding fireballs… a rotating band of deep blue light… Fourth of July pinwheel… etc.
This list of luminous formations conforms with the classification of forms, obtained by one of the authors, A. Dmitriev, in the course of two-decade study of optical phenomena (or luminous atmospheric objects) accompanying and fore running seismic and volcanic activity, aurora above tectonic faults, highly lightning-affected zones, etc. [Dm92; DmB]
The functional role of these formations revealed by the study allowed to state that natural luminous atmospheric objects constitute a high-energy link in the Earth envelope interaction. Namely, the luminous phenomena serve as an indicator of functioning of high-energy domains of crust in the given place at the given time. The presence of vertical energy transport between the Earth core and it’s gas-plasma envelopes influence the troposphere processes including large-scale vortex systems. Therefore the proposed approach to the study of physics and functional role of tornadoes is based on consideration and physical understanding of luminous phenomena as a trigger system forming vortex processes in Earth atmosphere.
The physical theory basis for our approach is given by a model of non-homogeneous physical vacuum developed by V. Dyatlov in [Dy95a,95b], which allows to explain the properties of natural luminous atmospheric phenomena. The new concept also takes into account the special qualities of discrete vortex filaments where the action of gyroscopic forces becomes essential.
Thus, our concept of tornado constitutes three essential expansions of the whole research:
1. The study of time-space distribution of tornadoes, based on a) registration of geophysics field variations b) analysis of helio-geophysics data archives c) analysis of geology and geophysical quality of maximal event frequency regions aimed at revealing the impact of geophysics energy transfers to tornado formation using methods developed by A.N.Dmitriev in his research work on prediction of seismic processes, detection of maximal tectonophysic tension areas and neotectonic faults.
2. Building of a physical model of tornado on a base of the model of non-homogeneous physical vacuum, whose polarization produces energy-containing space non-uniformities, which would be able to take into account different time-scale strongly non-equilibrium vortex processes in troposphere.
3. Realization of passage ( in mathematical description of tornado) from the principles of symmetrical mechanics where symmetric zero momentum stress tensor is used, to a model regarding the gyroscopic momentum, transferring torque between layers and thus stabilizing the flow.
It is natural, that supposed additions and expansions of tornado study urge to enlarge a number of registered parameters ( primarily, of electric and torsion fields) and to run experiments attempting to control the high-energy process.
2. The Study of Tornadoes
The Electrogravidynamic concept of tornado we present takes into account not only a wide range of parameters of tornado itself, but also of natural environment in which the investigated events evolve. The necessity for deep consideration of the quality of geology-geophysics environment and geoenergetic impacts follow from the very phenomenology of tornado.
Further we give a list of certain phenomenology data which allow us to rise a number of questions, which, we believe, may find their answer in Electrogravidynamic model. These groups of phenomena designate the directions in which we must focus our attention to get the lacking information about tornado itself and it’s environment . The latter is particularly important because of habitual inattentiveness to these questions from traditional strategies of research.
2.1 Tornado Phenomenology
1. Tornado is a violently rotating funnel pendant from a cumuli form cloud. Brooks [Br] proposed,and it became a common conviction, that a funnel is a part of a parent cloud, being similar in structure and dynamics to a small tropical hurricane with a spiral structure and it’s own eye. Here the parent cloud serves as the source of energy and substance for the funnel, cloud being able to exist without a funnel, whether the funnel cannot.
In connection with this concept, the main works on mathematical and physical description of tornado belong to the parent cloud. This approach seems to be completely justified taking into consideration that linear dimensions of a parent cloud are three orders of magnitude larger than a funnel.
We may and we have to agree with it, but let us not discard the following observation of Wobus [Wo]. A funnel left the cloud and moved forward. Soon a new cloud formed above it, reaching 10 km height. For several hours intense lightning were seen in this new cloud. There is another observation, now from near Shanghai: Not far from a boat a spray appeared on a sea surface; suddenly a rotating column formed of it, being about 10 m wide and 6 m high. The column began to grow rapidly. At first there were no clouds above it, but later a cloud formed, getting dark color. The column connected it with the sea.
As we see, these observations preserve the relation between cloud and funnel, but reverse it’s order.
2. Numerous observations of parent cloud indicated the existence long horizontal vortices in it, the vertical funnels being their extension.[Graz]. This fact waits for it’s dynamic explanation. What is the origin of the inner momentum turning kinetic vector of horizontal rotation to a vector of vertical rotation ?
The parent cloud has a three-story structure with rotation in horizontal plane, with middle and lower layer rotating in opposite directions [Wo, Fu].
3. The interior hollow of a funnel has a clearly defined air walls, with lightning flashing between them. or water surface, then the action of current sharply displays itself. At the same time, when a funnel doesn’t touch the ground, there’s no vertical flow. In 1951 in Texas a funnel passed over an observer at 6 meter height, the interior having diameter about 130m with walls of 3 meter width. Inside the hollow there was a brilliant cloud. There was no vacuum inside, because it was easy to breath . The walls were rotating with a very high speed, ant the rotation might be seen up to the top of the column. A bit later the funnel touched the neighbor’s house and immediately took it off. This description is similar to many others [Fl, Jus, Ho] and require the explanation of the fact that rotation of the air necessarily leads to decrease of pressure. Why, being 6m above the ground, the funnel end causes neither damage nor intense air motion, while, upon touching the ground, destroys and moves off a house?
Direct measurements show that there is a low pressure area inside the funnel ( 951 mb, Topica June 8, 1966). Such pressure decrease may be resulted at air rotation speed of about 100 m/sec and should make the breath difficult. Why the funnel uncovers the river bed sucking out it’s water, while at the same time the observers even do not notice a wind when the funnel passes above them?
The air flow inside the funnel is directed downward and reaches high velocities, while in the walls the air is spiraling up with velocities about 100-200 m/sec. In [Fl] Flora writes that the speed differences between the wind in funnel and steady air on it’s periphery may be so abrupt that they cause striking events.
A funnel uprooted the apple tree, tearing it to pieces. A beehive standing a couple of meters from it was left safe.[Hay] A two-story timber house was taken off with it’s inhabitants and torn to pieces. A staircase of three stairs led to the door with a bench leaning against it. Both, bench and staircase were not moved. The funnel also torn off to wheels of a car standing by, not moving the car itself, while an oil lamp which stood near on a table under a tree, still kept burning. [Fin].
Direct wind speed measurements lack mainly because of instruments wreckage . Indirect estimates give different magnitudes from 200 to 1300 km/h . Such range of magnitudes is explainable because estimates belong to different funnels at different stages of their existence.
The ability of objects to penetrate the other ones is also being referred to high rotation speeds. A small pebble punctures a glass like a bullet without forming fractures. One board penetrates the other without shattering it. A timber house wall is found punctured by an old charred plank, with it’s porous tip staying undamaged. A clover leaf was found pressed into a hard stucco wall. A 1.5 inches gate frame was found punctured by a piece of wood. [La, Graz].
5. When a funnel touches the ground or water surface, a pillar of dust or water arises at the funnel’s foot and then falls down to the earth, forming a cascade. By Wegener’s opinion this dust or water cascade exists due to a circular vortex appearing around the funnel’s foot. Sometimes the cascade’s height reaches 2/3 of the funnel’s height, and sometimes it’s width may exceed the funnel height. Both these cases cannot be explained by the funnel collision with the ground or water surface. Sometimes the funnel is surrounded by a second wall, forming a collar or envelope, also rotating with high speed. Sometimes, but rarely, the funnel has large round thickenings making it look like beads.[Hu].
6. Almost always, especially in the first stages, the funnel touches the ground only at separate points and moves jumpwise .
7. Crossing a river, a funnel pulls up such a quantity of water, that it uncovers the river bed, forming a trench in the water. Such phenomena were seen on Mississippi and Moscow rivers. On Rhine, where depth was 25m, the trench was 7 meters deep. [Nal]
Tornadoes may lift and transport people and animals at 4-10 km distances, sometimes keeping them alive. One inch mollusks were moved 160 km [ La], but did fell upon the ground one hour before the cloud’s coming. On June 17,1940 in Meschery village of Gorky region, Russia tornado poured out about a thousand XIV century silver coins. The coins were falling from the cloud, but not from the funnel itself. The treasure was transported at several kilometers and was poured out at a compact area. [Nal]
Irving 1879 tornado came across a new railroad bridge 75m long and weighting 108 tons. It lifted it up and turn into a roll. When funnel destroyed a large stone school building, the fragments were rotating fast, but were not thrown out.
A large timber church with 50 people in it was moved 6 meters, no one was killed. In 1963 a funnel transported a house with 10 inhabitants at 400 m distance,all stayed alive. [Nal]
8. The funnel, when it’s not touching the ground, emits buzzing or hissing noise. Faye [Fa] describes several cases when tornado was accompanied by ball lightning.
Sometime short and wide sheet lightning surround a funnel. Sometime all the surface of a funnel shines a strange yellow glow. Sometime observers describe a bluish ball-like formations like ball lightning, but much larger, visible in a cloud. Sometime a slowly moving fire columns are seen. [VoM, Vo60,Fr ] . Jones, describes a pulse generator – some center of electric activity looking as a round bright blue spot in a parent cloud appearing 30-90 minutes before a funnel. [Jo]
2.2 Geology-Geophysics Factors.
The whole sum of described facts of tornado acting forces specificity and geophysics phenomena associated with them urges one to investigate linkage between high-energy troposphere vortex processes and other phenomena. Existing observational data of luminous phenomena in atmosphere [DmZh, Dm92] confirm the key meaning of these phenomena for high-energy processes both in the crust and in gas-plasma envelopes of the Earth.
The facts of various luminescences in atmosphere are known long ago: preceding and accompanying earthquakes, preceding and accompanying volcanic eruptions, before and in time of passage of tropical hurricanes, in the thunderstorm development and above the tectonic fault areas. Actually, there’s no large-scale high-energy event in the depths of the Earth or on it’s surface, which would not be accompanied by luminous objects. Without any reason or proof these emitting atmospheric objects are considered as effects of “main” events, i.e. earthquakes, hurricanes, eruptions, tornadoes fault-developing processes, thunderstorms, etc. This version of secondary genesis of luminous objects and of their dependence of the main process keeps out of notice thousands of luminous, existing in quiet atmospheric and lithospheric conditions.
Taking into account rich variety of luminous formations before, in time of, and after dissolution of tornado – we have the right to consider more thoroughly the role of luminous formations in tornadoes’ causal sequence. This role is based on an assumption about summing up of environmental energy and vacuum domain properties. [DmDy] This assumption is working element of Electrogravidynamic concept of tornado and urges to expand the variety of events implicitly related to energy, frequency, dynamics and kinematics of tornado.
But just this information supply expansion on the problem would allow us to turn to predictive and preventive tasks. It is natural, that tornado occurrence prediction ( on account of tendency to increase of tornado frequency and energy ) must be preceded by creation of new type of databases, joining tornado parameters and helio-geophysics information. This creation would allow to turn to multi-purpose numeric experiments for reconstruction of maps of tornado occurrence under certain geomagnetic conditions and creation of forecasting maps.
Notwithstanding uniqueness of such research scenario, it was approved in part on a more specialized problem of Altai Mountain luminosity charting. This latter task, particularly, led to uncovering the key role of luminosity in seismic regime of Gorny Altai Area, namely, of significant decrease of the level of seismicity in areas of higher frequency of luminous formations . This surprising role of luminous formations may also indicate the specificity of tornado development and distribution.
From the other side, the importance of the study of luminous formations follow from our understanding of properties of physical processes in vacuum domain neighborhood and of their launching role in areas of available energy concentration ( i.e. in the areas of vertical energy transport between earth envelopes).
The Electrogravidynamic model of nonhomogeneous physical vacuum.
The construction of of nonhomogeneous physical vacuum theory began from the study of properties of plasmoids forming in energy-active domains of the Earth . These objects possess unique properties which hardly conform with modern physical concepts.
They emit electromagnetic waves in wide range. They have a surprising ability to penetrate solid objects . They are able to draw the dust in, bringing it to rotation. They form electric, magnetic, and gravitation fields around them. They are able to divide themselves to several parts. The frequency of their occurrence rises abruptly with the Solar activity.
The physical description of such objects may be found on a base physical vacuum non uniformity. The notion of ether polarization was introduced by H.A.Lorentz . He considered only electric and magnetic polarization, which results in appearing of electric and magnetic fields from neutral ether. Primarily ether, or homogeneous physical vacuum., consists of neutral particles phytons, containing doublets of particle and antiparticle of right and left worlds [Sh], i.e. it contains a “Terletzky quadrigue”. Phytons are neutral, because positive and negative electric charges, phyton gravitation masses, magnetic momentum and spines are mutually neutralized. Action of external fields in homogeneous physical vacuum results in polarization. Thus electric, magnetic, gravitation and spine characteristics appear, and all they are disconnected.
It is supposed that a phyton may divide to two semi-phytons, one of which contains right and left particles, while another contains right and left antiparticles. Such ether is also neutral in it’s non-excited state. Excited state leads to the above polarization, but in this case electric and gravitation, and also magnetic and spine polarization become dependent.
Electrogravidynamic model is based on electrodynamic equations of Maxwell and gravidynamic equations of Heaviside[He].
In these equations
p and pg are electric charge and mass densities,
J and Jg electric and gravitation current densities,
E,Eg,D,Dg – electric and gravitation fields and induction,
H,Hg,B,Bg – magnetic and spine ( torsion) fields and induction.
Electric and magnetic induction (correspondingly, gravitation and spine) of physical vacuum is
Here e0g and m0g are gravitation and spine permeabilities.
For absolute vacuum, consisting of phytons e1 and m1 are zero. For vacuum, consisting of matter semi-phytons they are positive, and for vacuum, consisting of matter semi-phytons they are negative. Thus the Electrogravidynamic model describes processes in three kinds of vacuum: absolute vacuum, matter vacuum and antimatter vacuum. It is supposed that matter vacuum and antimatter vacuum form, each separately, local formations in absolute vacuum. These formations are identified with plasmoids, so plasmoids may be of two kinds.
The analysis of Electrogravidynamic model allows to make some conclusions . First, gravitation waves, moving through a body, must be amplified, carrying out energy, characterized by specific power – sgjg2. Second, local semi-phyton domains must glow ( i.e. emit in a wide range of electromagnetic waves), and just that is observed in plasmoids. Third, the equations for induction imply that local semi-phyton vacuum formations in gravitation field electric polarization, i.e. an electric field appears around them. In magnetic field these formations acquire spine polarization, i.e. a spine field appears around them.
The same, conversely, holds for electric and spine fields.
The cold plasmoids in tornado also manifest the properties 1-6, and special mechanic effects in tornado are primarily connected with the spine field of these plasmoids.
4. Problems and Questions
We formulate below the questions and hypotheses arising from special qualities of investigated object and from Electrogravidynamic tornado concept. We emphasize anomalous aspects, i.e. those phenomena, which cannot be explained in terms of generally accepted rules. Thus, the answers to the questions, put by anomalous phenomena, cannot be found in the variety of possible interpretations. The phenomenology of tornado give evidence of it’s high anomaly in different aspects.
We organize questions in groups.
4.1 Origin of tornado
What is the characteristic of medium supplying the energy for creation of vortex system?
What is the material source : parent cloud for a funnel, funnel for a parent cloud, or both possibilities exist?
What is the origin and role of self -luminous objects in formation, existence and disappearance of tornado?
Do the self luminous formations supply the energy for and constitute a latent form of funnel existence?
How do ball, sheet and beaded lightning influence the tornado dynamics?
What is the nature of the “pulse generator”? What is it’s relation to mechanism of non homogeneous physical vacuum polarization?
What is the physics and transferring mechanism between slow rotation in the parent cloud to fast rotation in the funnel?
What is the origin turning horizontal vortex in the parent cloud to a vertical vortex in funnel?
What is the nature and genesis of inner momentum supporting opposite directed rotation of different parts of the parent cloud?
What is the origin of forces and momenta producing fast rotation of funnel walls and counter flows of air in the core and on periphery?
How to explain the stability of thin and fast currents forming funnel walls?
What momenta form annular vortex at funnel foot and then the cascade and funnel envelope?
What force compensates the centrifugal force, preventing the debris scattering?
Tornado movement specificity
What is the difference in movement of right and left rotating tornado and what is the difference in their destructive ability?
What causes the funnel to move jumpwise and why the dynamics of the funnel changes after it’s touching the ground or water surface?
Why the funnel’s destructive action manifests itself only upon touching the ground?
How to explain tornado levitation effects and why small objects may be transported by tornado at large distances without scattering?
4.4 Tornado Anomalous Effects
How to explain maple leave pressing into the hard stucco ; why porous tip of charred plank stayed undamaged after puncturing a wall; why pine stick didn’t break while puncturing the iron sheet?
What forces can make a deep trench in the water and keep it’s wall stable?
What forces might act separately upon a car, tearing off it’s two wheels and leaving the body safe?
[AT] A.E.Akimov,V.Ya.Tarasenko Physical vacuum polarization state models and torsion fields Izvestiya VUZov-Physics1992, pp.. [Br] Brooks E.M. The tornado cyclone. Weartherwise,v2,No2 . 1949,pp.32-33.
[D-J] R. Davies-Jones. Tornado dynamics -in: Thunderstorm morphology and dynamics,Norman,1985,p.197
[Dm92] A.N. Dmitriev, Ju.P.Poholkov, E.T. Protasevic.V.P.Scavinsky . Plasma generation in energy-active zones (Russian) Novosibirsk, Rus.Acad.Sci.Sib.Branch Geol.Geophys.Inst. 1992, 212pp.
[DmB] A.N. Dmitriev, V.V. Botvinovsky A search for laws of anomalous phenomena manifestation in USSR European region. (in Russian)-IICA bulletin v.2 1995 Novosibirsk p74-82.
[DmZh] A.N. Dmitriev, V.C.Zhuravlev Tunguska phenomenon of 1908 as a form of Solar-Terrestrial interaction (in Russian) Novosibirsk, USSR Acad.Sci. Sib.Branch Geol.Geophys.Inst.,1984 143pp.
[DmDy] A.N. Dmitriev, V.L.Dyatlov Nonhomogeneous physical vacuum model and natural self luminous objects. (in Russian)Novosibirsk, Rus.Acad.Sci.Sib.Branch Inst.of Math.1995,34pp.
[Dm94] A.N. Dmitriev Terrocosmic nature of Tunguska phenomenon of 1908(in Russian)- IICA bulletin v.1 1994 Novosibirsk [Dm92] A.N. Dmitriev Geophysics aspects of anomalous phenomena and global ecology-(in Russian) Izvestiya VUZov-Physics1992,No3 pp.30-38.
[Dy95] V.L.Dyatlov Electrogravimetric energy transformation. Moscow, NT-CENTER 1995,29pp.
[Dy95b] V.L.Dyatlov Electrogravimechanic energy transformation,Moscow,MITPF AEN prepr.No12,1995,9pp
[Fa] Faye H. Nouvell etude de tempetes, cyclones,trombes ou tornado. Paris,1897, 142p.
[Fin] FinleyJ.P. Report on the tornado of May 29 and 30, 1879 in Kansas, Nebraska, Prof paper of the signal service.No4, 1881, 116p.
[Fl] Flora S.D. Tornadoes of the United States. Univ. of Oklahoma press, Norman 1954,194p.
[Fr] Frankenfield H.C. The tornado and windstorms of May25-June6,1917. Monthly Weather Rev. V.45,1917,291-298.
[Fu58] Fujita T. Mesoanalysis of the Illinois tornadoes of April 9,1953 J.Met., Boston,v.15,June 1958,288-296.
[Fu60] Fujita T. A detailed analysis of the Fargo tornadoes of June,1957,Res PapNo42 US Weather Bur.,1960.
[Graz] Grazulis T. Significant Tornadoes, Boulder,CO,1993.
[Hall] Hall R.S. Inside a Texas tornado. Weatherwise,v.3,No4,1950,75-78.
[He] Heaviside O.A. Gravitation and electromagnetic analogy .-The Electrician, 1893 [Hay] Hayes R.S. The tornado of October 9,1913 at Lebanon,KA, . Monthly Weather Rev. V. 1913,1528
[Ho] Hoecker W.H. Three-dimensional pressure pattern of the Dallas tornado and some resultant implications. . Monthly Weather Rev. V.89,1961,533-542.
[Hu] Hurd.W.E. Some phases of waterspout behavior Weatherwise,v.4,No3,1951,54-57
[Jo] Jones H.L. The tornado pulse generator Weatherwise,v.18,No2,1965,78-79,85
[Jus] Justice A.A.Seeing the inside of a tornado. . Monthly Weather Rev. V.58,1930,57-58.
[KiD] Kirk T.H., Dean D.T.J. Report on a tornado at Malta, Oct 14,1960
[La] Lane F.W. The elements rage, London 1966. [Nal] D.V.Nalivkin, Hurricanes, Storms,Tornadoes. Nauka,Leningrad,1969.
[Mer89] V.I.Merkulov Known and unknown hydrodynamics. Nauka,Moscow,1989
[Mer95] V.I.Merkulov. Floatage waves as a heat pump. Rus.Acad.Sci.Doklady,v343,No1,1995,61-65.
[LoM] LoweA.B.,McCayG. The tornado of Western Canada Dept.of Transp.Met.Branch, Ottawa,1962.
[Sh] G.I.Shipov Physical vacuum theory, Moscow, NT-Center, 1993
[Ter] Ya.P.Terletzky, Yu.N.Rybakov, Electrodynamics. Moscow,Vysh.Schkola,1990
[Vo60] Vonnegut B. Electrical theory of tornadoes J.Geophys.Res. v65,1960,pp. 203-212
[Vo75] Vonnegut B. Comment on “On The Relation Of Electrical Activity To Tornadoes” J.of Geoph.Res.,v.80,No33,1975,p4559.
[VoM] Vonnegut B.,MeyerJ.R.,Luminous Phenomena Accompanying Tornadoes . Weatherwise, v.19,No2,1966,66-68.
[Wg] Wegener A. Wind und wasserhosen in Europa Braunschweig,1917
[Wo] Wobus H.B. Tornado from cumulo-nimbus Bull. Am. Met. Soc., v. 21,No 9,1940, pp.367-368
This article is from the newly offered Millennium Group ARCHIVES. This particular article comes from The Section: COSMOLOGY.
Within the ARCHIVES you’ll find similar awesome articles and research that you can purchase, download, own and share. Please take the time and give them a look. CLICK HERE TO VIEW